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Key facts about America’s 47.2 million Blacks 


The number of Black people living in the United States reached a new high of 47.2 million in 2021, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of government data. This group is diverse, with a growing number and share born outside the U.S. and an increasing number saying they are of two or more races. And while the South continues to see growth in its number of Black residents, the Black population is growing in other regions of the country, too.

For Black History Month, here are key facts about the nation’s Black population. In this analysis, the Black population is made up of three main groups: single-race, non-Hispanic Black people; non-Hispanic, multiracial Black people; and Black Hispanics. You can also read our newly updated fact sheet about Black Americans in 2021.

How we did this Terminology

The Black population in the U.S. has grown by 30% since 2000, rising from 36.2 million then to 47.2 million in 2021. Notably, the number of people self-identifying as another race in addition to Black has increased nearly 240% since 2000, reflecting a broader national shift in the number of Americans identifying as multiracial as well as changes to how the U.S. Census Bureau asks about race and ethnicity. The number of Black Americans who say they are Hispanic has also risen sharply over this period, up 185% since 2000.

The arrival of new immigrants from Africa, the Caribbean and elsewhere has been an important contributor to Black population growth. In 2021, there were 4.8 million foreign-born Black Americans, up from 2.4 million in 2000, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of Census Bureau data. Immigrants accounted for about 10% of the Black population in 2021, up from 7% in 2000.

More than half of the nation’s Black population (56%) lived in Southern states in 2021, up from a historic low of 52% in 1970. However, the share of Black Americans who live in the South varies by racial and ethnic background. Among those who are Black alone and not Hispanic, roughly six-in-ten (59%) live in the South. By comparison, only 42% of multiracial, non-Hispanic Black people and 35% of Black Hispanics live in the South.

With 4 million Black residents, Texas is the state with the largest Black population. Following Texas is Florida, with 3.8 million, and Georgia, with 3.6 million.

New York has more Black residents than any other metropolitan area. Nearly 4 million Black Americans live in the New York metro area. Other metro areas with large Black populations include Atlanta (2.2 million), Washington, D.C. (1.8 million) and Chicago (1.7 million).

As a share of the population, the Atlanta area is home to a higher percentage of Black people than any other metro area with at least 1 million Black residents. Nearly four-in-ten residents of the Atlanta metro area (37%) are Black, followed by 28% in the Washington metro area, 24% in the Detroit metro area, and 23% each in the Philadelphia and Miami metro areas.

The Black population of the U.S. is relatively young. In 2021, the median age of Black Americans was 33 years, meaning half of the nation’s Black population was younger than that age and half was older. By comparison, the nation’s overall median age was 38 in 2021.

Among Black Americans, median age varies considerably by race and ethnicity: Single-race, non-Hispanic Black Americans had a median age of 35 in 2021, compared with only 22 among Black Hispanics and 20 among multiracial, non-Hispanic Black Americans.

Educational attainment among Black Americans is on the rise. In 2021, 26% of Black adults ages 25 and older – 7.5 million people – had earned a bachelor’s degree or more, up from 15% in 2000.

Growing shares of Black women and Black men have earned a bachelor’s degree or more over the last two decades. However, Black women have seen a larger gain than Black men, leading to a widening gender gap in educational attainment. In 2021, 29% of Black women ages 25 and older had earned at least a bachelor’s degree, up from 16% in 2000. Among Black men of the same age, 22% had earned at least a bachelor’s degree in 2021, up from 13% in 2000.

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